星期四,2月4日,二千零一十六

写一篇文献综述:从开始到结束的六个步骤

As Get a Life,博士学位接近两百万(!!) page views,我要拿出一些最佳点击量from the archive.下面的文章是这个博客有史以来阅读量最大的文章。超过125,000 views.当我的学生开始他们的第一次文学评论时,我经常与他们分享这篇文章。而且,we read Foss and Walters' book every year in my graduate Writing and Publishing class.


写一篇文学评论通常是写一篇文章最令人生畏的部分,书,论文,或者是论文。“文学“seems (and often is) massive.I have found it helpful to be as systematic as possible in doing this gargantuan task.这篇文章描述了一个撰写文献评论的系统。

在他们的书中,, Destination Dissertation: A Traveler's Guide to a Done Dissertation ,索尼娅·福斯和威廉·沃尔特斯描述了一种高效的文学评论写作方法。我认为这是一个很好的指南,可以帮助我们通过大量的文学作品来达到任何目的:在博士学位课程中,for writing an M.A.论文,or an article in any field of study.

德赢官网学术书库


Step One: Decide on your areas of research

在开始搜索文章或书籍之前,事先决定你要研究的领域。Make sure that you only get articles and books in those areas,even if you come across fascinating books in other areas.

第二步:搜索文献:

对您所在地区的书籍和文章进行全面的书目搜索。Read the abstracts online and download and/or print those articles that pertain to your area of research.在图书馆里找到相关的书并把它们看出来。为要搜索的时间设置特定的时间范围。不应超过两到三次专门的时间会议。

第三步:在你的书和文章中找到相关的摘录:

Skim the contents of each book and article and look specifically for these five things:

  1. 声称,结论:以及你正在研究的结构的发现
  2. Definitions of terms
  3. Calls for follow-up studies relevant to your project
  4. 你在文献中发现的空白
  5. Disagreement about the constructs you are investigating


当你发现这五样东西中的任何一种,直接在Word文档中键入相关摘录。不要总结,as summarizing takes longer than simply typing the excerpt.一定要记下作者的名字和每篇摘录后面的页码。Do this for each article and book that you have in your stack of literature.完成后,把你的摘录打印出来。

第四步:对文献进行编码

Get out a pair of scissors and cut each excerpt out.现在,把这些纸分类成类似的主题。找出主要的主题。Place each excerpt into a themed pile.确保每张纸条都成一堆。If there are excerpts that you can't figure out where they belong,把它们分开,最后再检查一遍,看看你是否需要新的分类。完成后,place each stack of notes into an envelope labeled with the name of the theme.

第五步:创建概念模式

Type,in large font,the name of each of your coded themes.打印出来,and cut the titles into individual slips of paper.Take the slips of paper to a table or large workspace and figure out the best way to organize them.Are there ideas that go together or that are in dialogue with each other?Are there ideas that contradict each other?移动纸条,直到你想出一种有意义的代码组织方法。vwin徳赢竞技在你忘记或有人清理你的纸条之前,写下概念模式!!

第六步:开始写你的文学评论vwin徳赢竞技

Choose any section of your conceptual schema to begin with.你可以从任何地方开始,因为你已经知道命令了。找到信封,里面有摘录,放在你面前的桌子上。Figure out a mini-conceptual schema based on that theme by grouping together those excerpts that say the same thing.Use that mini-conceptual schema to vwin徳赢竞技write up your literature review based on the excerpts that you have in front of you.别忘了在你写的时候加上引文,vwin徳赢竞技以免忘记谁说了什么。Repeat this for each section of your literature review.

Once you complete these six steps,你将有一份完整的文学评论草稿。The great thing about this process is that it breaks down into manageable steps something that seems enormous: writing a literature review.

我认为福斯和沃尔特的文学评论系统真的可以用于一篇论文,because a Ph.D.候选人已经通过研究生研讨会和综合考试广泛阅读了他或她的领域。

对M.A.来说,这可能更具挑战性。students,unless you are already familiar with the literature.总是很难弄清楚你需要读多少才能有深刻的意义,and how much you just need to know what others have said.这个平衡将取决于你已经知道了多少。

For faculty writing literature reviews for articles or books,这个系统也可以工作,尤其是当你在一个你已经熟悉的领域写作时。The mere fact of having a system can make the literature review seem much less daunting,所以我推荐这个系统给那些对写一篇文学评论感到不知所措的人。

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2评论:

  1. I found this really helpful in giving me a structure to finish off my literature review.I had a mountain of information that I needed to collate and put in to a format that could be easily understood by another reader.The formula above is neat,帮助我整理和跟踪许多文章。

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