Writing a literature review is often the most daunting part of writing an article,book,thesis,或者是论文。"The literature"seems (and often is) massive.我发现尽可能系统地完成这项庞大的任务是有帮助的。这篇文章描述了一个撰写文献评论的系统。In their book,，
Destination Dissertation: A Traveler's Guide to a Done Dissertation
，索尼娅·福斯和威廉·沃尔特斯描述了一种高效的文学评论写作方法。I think it provides an excellent guide for getting through the massive amounts of literature for any purpose: in a doctorate program,for writing an M.A.thesis,or an article in any field of study.
Step One: Decide on your areas of researchBefore you begin to search for articles or books,事先决定你要研究的领域。确保你只在那些地区得到文章和书籍，即使你在其他领域遇到了引人入胜的书。
Step Two: Search for the literature:Conduct a comprehensive bibliographic search of books and articles in your area.Read the abstracts online and download and/or print those articles that pertain to your area of research.Find books in the library that are relevant and check them out.Set a specific time frame for how long you will search.It should not take more than two or three dedicated time sessions.
Step Three: Find relevant excerpts in your books and articles:浏览每本书和每一篇文章的内容，并具体查找以下五点：
- Claims,结论：and findings about the constructs you are investigating
- Definitions of terms
- Gaps you notice in the literature
- Disagreement about the constructs you are investigating
When you find any of these five things,直接在Word文档中键入相关摘录。Don't summarize,as summarizing takes longer than simply typing the excerpt.一定要记下作者的名字和每篇摘录后面的页码。对你的文学作品中的每一篇文章和每一本书都要这样做。When you are done,把你的摘录打印出来。
Step Four: Code the literatureGet out a pair of scissors and cut each excerpt out.Now,sort the pieces of paper into similar topics.Figure out what the main themes.把每一个节选放在一个主题堆里。确保每张纸条都成一堆。如果有一些摘录你不知道它们属于哪里，separate those and go over them again at the end to see if you need new categories.When you finish,place each stack of notes into an envelope labeled with the name of the theme.
第五步：创建概念模式Type,in large font,你的每一个编码的主题的名称。Print this out,and cut the titles into individual slips of paper.Take the slips of paper to a table or large workspace and figure out the best way to organize them.Are there ideas that go together or that are in dialogue with each other?Are there ideas that contradict each other?移动纸条，直到你想出一种有意义的代码组织方法。vwin徳赢竞技在你忘记或有人清理你的纸条之前，写下概念模式！！
Step Six: Begin to vwin徳赢竞技Write Your Literature ReviewChoose any section of your conceptual schema to begin with.You can begin anywhere,因为你已经知道命令了。Find the envelope with the excerpts in them and lay them on the table in front of you.Figure out a mini-conceptual schema based on that theme by grouping together those excerpts that say the same thing.使用这个小的概念模式，根据你面前的摘录写下你的文献回顾。vwin徳赢竞技Don't forget to include the citations as you vwin徳赢竞技write,以免忘记谁说了什么。Repeat this for each section of your literature review.
Once you complete these six steps,you will have a complete draft of your literature review.这个过程的伟大之处在于，它可以分解为可管理的步骤，看起来是巨大的：写一篇文献综述。
I think that Foss and Walter's system for writing the literature review really can work for a dissertation,because a Ph.D.候选人已经通过研究生研讨会和综合考试广泛阅读了他或她的领域。
It may be more challenging for M.A.students,除非你已经熟悉这些文献。It is always hard to figure out how much you need to read for deep meaning,你只需要知道别人说了什么。That balance will depend on how much you already know.
对于为文章或书籍撰写文献评论的教师，这个系统也可以工作，especially when you are writing in a field with which you are already familiar.仅仅拥有一个系统的事实就可以使文学评论看起来不那么令人生畏，so I recommend this system for anyone who feels overwhelmed by the prospect of writing a literature review.